LORD LUGARD THE DUAL MANDATE PDF

His The Dual Mandate, first published in , became a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. It offered a comprehensive evaluation of the nature and challenges of British rule in Africa. To shield British spheres of influence from external intrusion, the British Foreign Office declared them as Protectorates. Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies.

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His The Dual Mandate, first published in , became a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. It offered a comprehensive evaluation of the nature and challenges of British rule in Africa.

To shield British spheres of influence from external intrusion, the British Foreign Office declared them as Protectorates.

Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies. Apart from east and southern Africa, where the terrain and temperate weather offered convenient habitation to European settlers, the African tropics held few incentives for white settlers.

However, the region provided abundant sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. Decentralization at all levels of government, with a strong coordinating authority in the center, allowed for greater efficiency. Continuity was vital because Africans trusted foreigners reluctantly. Therefore, effective British officers should retain their posts without undue interruptions. Decentralization and continuity could only be achieved if cooperation existed within the administrative chains, especially between the provincial staff and local rulers.

His book is a masterpiece of literature and policymaking, though contemporary readers will find his defense of British colonialism in Africa racist and paternalistic. Secondly, he argued that Britain practiced a beneficent regime that taught Africans the value of freedom and liberty, hence their desire for independence.

Nonetheless, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa is illuminating for readers seeking to understand the foundations of British colonial policies in Africa.

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Frederick Lugard

When she rejected him, Lugard decided to make a fresh start in Africa. In the African Lakes Company set up a base in Karonga to exchange ivory for trade goods from these Swahili merchants. The series of intermittent armed clashes that took place up to mid is known as the Karonga War , or sometimes the Arab War. Their first interior trading post was established at Machakos miles in from the coast. But the established traditional route to Machakos was a treacherous journey through the large Taru Desert—93 miles of scorching dust bowl. In August , Lugard departed on foot from Mombasa for Uganda to secure British predominance over German influence in the area and put an end to the civil disturbances between factions in the kingdom of Buganda.

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The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, by Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (1965)

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