JAPAN REMILITARIZATION PDF

During his first time in office these maverick thoughts and his attempt to turn them into conventional issues were a strong factor in his rejection by the Japanese people and his eventual resignation. Shinzo Abe learned that the time was not yet right for such things to be brought into the mainstream. Fast forward almost a decade and not only are these same issues not taboo they are now seriously considered part of the mainstream of Japanese domestic politics. The change was brought forth almost entirely by a more aggressive China that has incrementally begun to flex its muscles in the Pacific region.

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His assassination years ago sparked a crisis between Austria and Serbia that, due to the polarized alliance system of the day, quickly pit one group of great European powers against another in the greatest, most deadly war the world up to that point had ever seen.

So terrible was that war that it sparked another, more terrible war barely 20 years later. In so many ways the world today is still dealing with the fallout of that first war. In the Middle East, for instance, states jerry-rigged together by wartime promises and imperialist scheming are falling apart at the seams, releasing torrents of blood in the process.

The war also marked the beginning of the end for one global power — Great Britain — and the beginning of the global rise to power of another — the United States. New technology was tying the world together in new and uncomfortable ways, while global capitalism was simultaneously making us all more economically interdependent and vulnerable, too.

While the analogies with the past are imperfect, they are nonetheless worrisome to consider, given that first era of globalization ended with two dead royals at one end of a narrow alleyway in Sarajevo and a smoking pistol held by a Serbian extremist at the other.

Thankfully, despite the similarities, times are just different enough to make what happened a century ago much less likely to take place today. Or, so we would like to think. That piece is the lack of a polarized system of international alliances that could quickly turn a petty brushfire conflict in one area of the world into a global conflagration via a chain of defensive ties and mutual assistance pacts.

For better or for worse, China is challenging the existing territorial status quo in East Asia on multiple fronts. In the south it is laying claims to huge swathes of ocean thought to be rich in oil and gas but legitimately claimed by several nations.

Along its border with India, Chinese patrols are more aggressive , and on its official maps it shows large chunks of territory now controlled by Delhi to, in fact, be part of China. Finally, to its east, China has declared a pair of small islands claimed by Japan part of its territory. Some, like Vietnam , have actively resisted by engaging in a dangerous cat-and-mouse game of naval maneuvering that features attempted rammings and water cannons, but no use of live ordnance so far.

Others, like the Philippines , have attempted to take their case against China to bodies like the World Court, only to see the powerless body be dismissed by Beijing as having no writ on territorial issues of this sort. Beijing, like it or not, is correct, for only one thing will lead China to the bargaining table — power. Like a textbook case of the balance-of-power physics of international politics , Chinese actions have frightened its neighbors and led them to become closer with the U.

Vietnam , which fought a devastating war against the U. The Philippines has invited the U. Navy back to the archipelago after throwing Uncle Sam out its military bases there in the s. India , too, is now edging closer to the U. More important still, the states of South and East Asia are now cooperating with one another to potentially deter China via defense exchanges, diplomatic talks and joint military training.

It looks like even Japan is coming in on the act. Tokyo is allied with the U. At that time, Japan was in no state to protect itself, as it had just been soundly defeated — nearly destroyed, in fact — by its encounter with the U. Japan was pacifist, though it had a powerful and advanced military, and was content to be protected by Washington indefinitely as it suited nearly everyone, Japanese included, for that to be the case.

Thus, under the paradigm that ruled in East Asia for decades, security issues affecting Northeast, South and Southeast Asia were effectively delinked. Likewise, the individual spokes — the states of Southeast Asia and South Asia, and Japan itself — are under much greater pressure.

The obvious solution to all this is to replace the older model that kept the states of East Asia in separate security compartments all linked to Washington with something more comprehensive, like a sort of Pacific version of NATO that would bind them and Washington together in a more cohesive and comprehensive manner.

Given that the preferred U. A more cohesive pact of anti-China Pacific nations is necessary because under this doctrine a huge amount of operational space is necessary for positioning air and naval units around the Chinese periphery in such a way that they cannot all be neutralized by a Chinese first strike on U. Under AirSea Battle, U. Additionally, it should be noted, it would become a lot more dangerous for everyone. A Japan that is a more effective partner for the U. As consequence, China will have to take Japanese moves into its calculations when deciding on whether to use force against, say, Vietnam in its dispute with that nation in the South China Sea in the same way that Germany had to take Russian moves into account as it confronted France years ago.

Washington is gambling that the addition of a more assertive Japan to the list of military forces willing to fight China if push comes to shove in the region is enough to deter Beijing from making any rash moves. However, it could also have the opposite effect in that if China decides to go ahead and strike at Vietnam or some other smaller power it will out of necessity have to strike at Japan or any other major U.

Through alliances meant to contain China, in other words, a dispute in the South China Sea or the East China Sea could turn into war raging across the entire East Asian region. Would, for instance, such a war stay contained there? Would other regions be drawn in? If Beijing feels encircled in East Asia, might it not look for allies and openings elsewhere — just as the Soviet Union did during the Cold War and Imperial Germany did before the First World War — and thus spread conflict wherever such an opening is found?

All this is speculative, but the portents are not good ones. East Asia is in the process of being divided into two armed camps led by Beijing and Washington, respectively. The orbit of nations around the U. The U.

LEIERMANN SCHUBERT PDF

The Remilitarization of Japan, Explained

His assassination years ago sparked a crisis between Austria and Serbia that, due to the polarized alliance system of the day, quickly pit one group of great European powers against another in the greatest, most deadly war the world up to that point had ever seen. So terrible was that war that it sparked another, more terrible war barely 20 years later. In so many ways the world today is still dealing with the fallout of that first war. In the Middle East, for instance, states jerry-rigged together by wartime promises and imperialist scheming are falling apart at the seams, releasing torrents of blood in the process. The war also marked the beginning of the end for one global power — Great Britain — and the beginning of the global rise to power of another — the United States. New technology was tying the world together in new and uncomfortable ways, while global capitalism was simultaneously making us all more economically interdependent and vulnerable, too. While the analogies with the past are imperfect, they are nonetheless worrisome to consider, given that first era of globalization ended with two dead royals at one end of a narrow alleyway in Sarajevo and a smoking pistol held by a Serbian extremist at the other.

IGRAINE THE BRAVE PDF

The Re-Militarization of Japan

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