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Infectious disease Most strains of H. They infect the host by sticking to the host cell using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. Naturally acquired disease caused by H. In infants and young children, H. On occasion, it causes cellulitis , osteomyelitis , and infectious arthritis. It is one cause of neonatal infection. However, Hib remains a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children in developing countries where the vaccine is not widely used.
Unencapsulated H. Diagnosis[ edit ] Sputum Gram stain at x magnification. The sputum is from a person with Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia, and the Gram negative coccobacilli are visible with a background of neutrophils. Haemophilus influenzae requires X and V factors for growth. In this culture, Haemophilus has only grown around the paper disc that has been impregnated with X and V factors.
No bacterial growth is seen around the discs that only contain either X or V factor. Chest X-ray of a case of Haemophilus influenzae, presumably as a secondary infection from influenza. It shows patchy consolidations, mainly in the right upper lobe arrow.
Clinical features may include initial symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection mimicking a viral infection, usually associated with fevers, often low-grade. This may progress to the lower respiratory tract in a few days, with features often resembling those of a wheezy bronchitis.
Sputum may be difficult to expectorate and is often grey or creamy in color. The cough may persist for weeks without appropriate treatment. Many cases are diagnosed after presenting chest infections that do not respond to penicillins or first-generation cephalosporins. A chest X-ray can identify alveolar consolidation. Diagnosis is considered confirmed when the organism is isolated from a sterile body site.
In this respect, H. Culture[ edit ] Bacterial culture of H. Colonies of H. Gram stained and microscopic observation of a specimen of H. The cultured organism can be further characterized using catalase and oxidase tests, both of which should be positive. Further serological testing is necessary to distinguish the capsular polysaccharide and differentiate between H.
Although highly specific, bacterial culture of H. Use of antibiotics prior to sample collection greatly reduces the isolation rate by killing the bacteria before identification is possible. Poor quality of laboratories in developing countries has resulted in poor isolation rates of H.
Fildes agar is best for isolation. In Levinthal medium, capsulated strains show distinctive iridescence. Latex particle agglutination[ edit ] The latex particle agglutination test LAT is a more sensitive method to detect H. It also has the added benefit of being much quicker than culture methods. However, antibiotic sensitivity testing is not possible with LAT alone, so a parallel culture is necessary. Molecular methods[ edit ] Polymerase chain reaction PCR assays have been proven to be more sensitive than either LAT or culture tests, and highly specific.
Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis has been shown to be an effective research diagnostic method, but has been largely supplanted by PCR. Interaction with Streptococcus pneumoniae[ edit ] Both H. In an in vitro study of competition, S. When either is placed separately into a nasal cavity, each one survives. Upon examining the upper respiratory tissue from mice exposed to both bacteria species, an extraordinarily large number of neutrophils immune cells was found.
In mice exposed to only one of the species, the neutrophils were not present. Lab tests showed neutrophils exposed to dead H. Exposure to dead H. Two scenarios may be responsible for this response: When H. It is unclear why H. Symptoms of pneumonia usually include:  Fever but older people may have lower than normal body temperature Cough.
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