HUME ROTHERY RULES PDF

Bhadeshia Hume-Rothery was a metallurgist who studied the alloying of metals. His research was conducted at Oxford University where in , he was appointed to the first chair in metallurgy. His research led to some simple and useful rules on the extent to which an element might dissolve in a metal []. The rules that he derived are paraphrased here.

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This lesson introduces the concept of solid solutions, discusses the Hume-Rothery Rules, and explains how these rules can be used to predict if two elements will form a solid solution. What is a liquid solution? What happens when you combine oil and water? Just like the picture shows, the oil and the water separate. On the other hand, water and ethanol do not separate, because they form a liquid solution. Oil and water do not mix to form a liquid solution Solid Solutions Just as two liquids can mix to form a liquid solution, two solids can mix to form a solid solution.

For example, copper and nickel mix to form a solid solution. This means that the copper and nickel atoms completely mix with each other no matter how much copper or nickel there is. The image shows copper and nickel atoms in a solid solution.

A plane of atoms in a solid solution of copper and nickel The Hume-Rothery Rules How can you tell if two solids will form a solid solution? A great place to start is the Hume-Rothery Rules. William Hume-Rothery researched metal mixtures and created these rules to predict whether two elements can form solid solutions. The Hume-Rothery rules state that two elements must be very similar to each other in order to form a solid solution, because any dissimilarities can cause separation like in the case of oil and water.

The two elements must therefore meet all of the following conditions in order to mix and form a solid solution. Crystal Structure: The two elements must have the same crystal structure. This means that the atoms in one element must arrange in the same way as the atoms in the other element. Electronegativity: The two elements must have similar electronegativity values. Electronegativity values can be found online or in chemistry books. Valency values can be found online or in chemistry books.

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William Hume-Rothery

This lesson introduces the concept of solid solutions, discusses the Hume-Rothery Rules, and explains how these rules can be used to predict if two elements will form a solid solution. What is a liquid solution? What happens when you combine oil and water? Just like the picture shows, the oil and the water separate. On the other hand, water and ethanol do not separate, because they form a liquid solution. Oil and water do not mix to form a liquid solution Solid Solutions Just as two liquids can mix to form a liquid solution, two solids can mix to form a solid solution.

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