Engraving by Willem Swidde. Birka was founded around AD by either a king in order to control and expand trade or it emerged from a seasonal trading place around. As a trading center Birka most likely offered furs and iron goods as well as craft products, in exchange for various materials from much of Europe and western Asia. Furs were obtained from the Sami , Finns , and people in northwestern Russia as well as from local trappers. Furs included bear , fox , marten , otter , beaver and other species. Reindeer antler was an important item in exchange as well as hand-carved combs made from antler.
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The text focuses on the history of the Hamburg-Bremen diocese and its bishops. As the bishops had jurisdiction over the missions to Scandinavia , it also gives a report of the Norse paganism of the period. It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids, colonization, and conquest.
Willehad or Willihad ; c. The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries. The realms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden established their own Archdioceses, responsible directly to the Pope, in , and , respectively. The conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people required more time, since it took additional efforts to establish a network of churches.
The Sami remained unconverted until the 18th century. Contents The treatise consist of the following parts: an introduction, addressed to bishop Liemar Book 1: History of the bishopric of Bremen and after Hamburg-Bremen — Book 2: History of the archbishopric Hamburg-Bremen — Book 3: Biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg r. Adami epilogus ad Liemarum episcopum: A dedication to bishop Liemar in hexameters Liemar was archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen from to , and an important figure of the early Investiture Contest.
Adalbert was Archbishop of Hamburg and Bishop of Bremen from until his death. The text is one of the most important sources of Northern German and Scandinavian history and geography in the Viking Age and the beginning High Middle Ages.
The third book is focused on the biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg. Adam based his works in part on Einhard , Cassiodorus , and other earlier historians, consulting the library of the church of Bremen.
The Saxons were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. Earlier, in the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic inhabitants of what is now England, and also as a word something like the later "Viking", as a term for raiders. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons were associated with the coast of what later became Normandy.
Though sometimes described as also fighting inland, coming in conflict with the Franks and Thuringians, no clear homeland can be defined. There is possibly a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but it is disputed. This general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles. Wends is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. After the death of Bishop Leuderich —45 , the see was given to Ansgar , it lost its independence, and from that time on was permanently united with the Archdiocese of Hamburg. The Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen was designated the "Mission of the North" and had jurisdiction over all missions in Scandinavia , and the entire scope of Viking expansion in the north Russia , Iceland , Greenland , throughout the Viking Age , until the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen had a falling-out with the pope , and separate archbishopric for the North was established in Lund in Ansgar became known as the "Apostle of the North" because of his travels and the See of Hamburg received the missionary mandate to bring Christianity to Northern Europe.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.
In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.
Viking expansion is the process by which Norse explorers, traders and warriors, the latter known in modern scholarship as Vikings, sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries.
Adam is also an important source of Viking Age Norse paganism , including the practice of human sacrifice :  The description of the temple at Uppsala is one of the most famous excerpts of the Gesta: "In this temple, entirely decked out in gold, the people worship the statues of three gods in such wise that the mightiest of them, Thor , occupies a throne in the middle of the chamber; Wotan and Frikko have places on either side. The other, Wotan — that is, Fury [Wodan, id est furor] — carries on war and imparts to man strength against his enemies.
The third is Frikko, who bestows peace and pleasure on mortals. His likeness, too, they fashion with an immense phallus. Beyond this, it gives a description of the coast of Scandinavia and of the "northern isles" including Iceland , Greenland and notably in chapter 39 Vinland North America , [note 1] being the oldest extant written record of the Norse discovery of North America.
Adam of Bremen had been at the court of Danish king Sven Estridson and was informed about the Viking discoveries in the North Atlantic there. From his chronicles it is apparent that he was familiar with a number of authors. The honorary name of Magister Adam shows that he had passed through all the stages of a higher education. It is probable that he was taught at the Magdeburger Domschule. In or he was invited by archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg to join the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen.
His position and the missionary activity of the church of Hamburg-Bremen allowed him to gather information on the history and the geography of Northern Germany. A stay at the court of Svend Estridson gave him the opportunity to find information about the history and geography of Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries.
None of the three archetypes has been preserved. The most relevant surviving manuscripts are classified into three groups, labelled A, B and C. Parts of book 2, book 4 and some scholia are also preserved in a ms.
Manuscripts in the B and C groups are derived from version X. They contain independent additions of scholia. The best ms. Some copies of this ms. Editions The editio princeps was printed in after the now-lost ms. C2 by Erpold Lindenberg. It was reprinted as Scriptores rerum septentrionalium in and Fabricius in Hamburg.
The first critical edition, based on ms. A1, is due to Johann Martin Lappenberg , published It was included in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica series, appearing in a revised edition by Georg Waitz in , and edited by Migne in PL The edition by Bernhard Schmeidler , reprinted , remains current. See also.
Деяния архиепископов гамбургской церкви
The treatise consist of the following parts: an introduction, addressed to bishop Liemar Book 1: History of the bishopric of Bremen and after Hamburg-Bremen — Book 2: History of the archbishopric Hamburg-Bremen — Book 3: Biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg r. Adami epilogus ad Liemarum episcopum: A dedication to bishop Liemar in hexameters The text is one of the most important sources of Northern German and Scandinavian history and geography in the Viking Age and the beginning High Middle Ages. The third book is focused on the biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg. Adam based his works in part on Einhard , Cassiodorus , and other earlier historians, consulting the library of the church of Bremen.
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Altnordisch S. Un compendio del secondo libro dei Gesta di Adamo di Brema in antico nordico, in: Devotionis munus. Scarcia — F. Stok , Pisa , mit Nennung der Editionen pp. Velleus , Historia ecclesiastica continens religionis propagatae gesta Migne , Patrologiae cursus completus.