Counter-insurgency operations include many different facets: military , paramilitary , political , economic , psychological , and civic actions taken to defeat insurgency. To understand counter-insurgency, one must understand insurgency to comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare. Insurgents capitalize on societal problems, often called gaps; counter-insurgency addresses closing the gaps. When the gaps are wide, they create a sea of discontent, creating the environment in which the insurgent can operate. Caldwell IV wrote: The law of armed conflict requires that, to use force, " combatants " must distinguish individuals presenting a threat from innocent civilians.
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In , he was expelled from the French officer corps, in accordance with the Statute on Jews of the Vichy State. After living as a civilian in North Africa , he joined the I Corps of the Army of the Liberation, and served during the liberation of France , receiving a wound during the invasion of Elba in June In April , he was captured by Chinese Communists during a solo trip into the interior.
Though fiercely anti-Communist, his captors treated him well and he eventually was released through the help of the Marshall mission. He visited the Philippines, and studied the Indochina War without taking part in it. He distinguished himself by applying personal tactics in counterinsurgency to his sector of Kabylie , at Djebel Mimoun,  near Tigzirt , effectively eliminating the nationalist insurgency in his sector and earning accelerated promotion from this point.
He gave a series of conferences abroad and attended the Armed Forces Staff College. Later life and death Galula resigned his commission in to study in the United States , where he obtained a position of research associate at the Center for International Affairs of Harvard University.
He died in of lung cancer. Most of the population will be neutral in the conflict; support of the masses can be obtained with the help of an active friendly minority. Support of the population may be lost. The population must be efficiently protected to allow it to cooperate without fear of retribution by the opposite party.
Order enforcement should be done progressively by removing or driving away armed opponents, then gaining support of the population, and eventually strengthening positions by building infrastructure and setting long-term relationships with the population.
This must be done area by area, using a pacified territory as a basis of operation to conquer a neighbouring area. A victory is that plus the permanent isolation of the insurgent from the population, isolation not enforced upon the population, but maintained by and with the population.
In conventional warfare, strength is assessed according to military or other tangible criteria, such as the number of divisions, the position they hold, the industrial resources, etc. In revolutionary warfare, strength must be assessed by the extent of support from the population as measured in terms of political organization at the grass roots. The counterinsurgent reaches a position of strength when his power is embedded in a political organization issuing from, and firmly supported by, the population.
Concentrate enough armed forces to destroy or to expel the main body of armed insurgents. Establish contact with the population, control its movements in order to cut off its links with the guerillas. Destroy the local insurgent political organization. Set up, by means of elections, new provisional local authorities. Test those authorities by assigning them various concrete tasks.
Replace the softs and the incompetents, give full support to the active leaders. Organize self-defense units. Group and educate the leaders in a national political movement.
Win over or suppress the last insurgent remnants. Army Command and General Staff College.
Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice
Find out about our effort to help us all think through what we can do to help. Though many of its empirical examples are dated, its insights remain hauntingly relevant. It is still considered by many to be the "Bible" of counterinsurgency warfare. In it, Galula, a French military officer with experience in China, Greece, Southeast Asia, and Algeria, seeks to provide a "compass" for the counterinsurgent, much as Mao did for the revolutionary. This "compass" is comprised of the laws and principals of counterinsurgency warfare, and corresponding strategy and tactics. While a revolution is a sudden and "accidental" mass movement and a plot or coup is an intentional effort to overthrow the top leadership in a swift action, an insurgency is intentional, but not swift.
Mar 20, teohjitkhiam rated it it was amazing This review of mine is qualified on the basis that I have never served in the armed forces in any capacity, much less participated as a civilian in a counterinsurgency campaign, or even experienced one beforehand. Much of what I have to say are merely reflections of an amateur observer. Despite being a rather slim volume consisting of only pages, and reflecting upon a short time-span of counterinsurgency dating This review of mine is qualified on the basis that I have never served in the armed forces in any capacity, much less participated as a civilian in a counterinsurgency campaign, or even experienced one beforehand. Despite being a rather slim volume consisting of only pages, and reflecting upon a short time-span of counterinsurgency dating from the end of WWII to the early 60s, this is a concisely-written book that can either be scoured in a day or contemplated in a week. Galula structured the book in such a way that a reader is first introduced to the "big picture" before being indoctrinated with the "devil in the details". Has the book held up well since ?
In , Galula married Ruth Beed Morgan In , he was expelled from the French officer corps, in accordance with the Statute on Jews of the Vichy State. After living as a civilian in North Africa , he joined the I Corps of the Army of the Liberation, and served during the liberation of France , receiving a wound during the invasion of Elba in June There he continued his warm relationship with Jacques Guillermaz , an officer from an old French military family with whom he had served in France. In April , he was captured by Chinese Communists during a solo trip into the interior.