Ilan Pappe. Oneworld Publications, Oxford, England, By Stephen Lendman PalestineChronicle. Zionists needed to neutralize Jordan because it had the strongest army in the Arab world and would have been a formidable threat had it become part of the overall Arab force that went to war with the new Jewish state.
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Retrieving it from oblivion is incumbent upon us; it is the very first step we must take if we ever want reconciliation to take a chance, and peace to take root, in the torn land of Palestine and Israel.
He meticulously and painfully reconstructs the story of how Zionist leaders, over many decades, carefully laid the groundwork for this expulsion and how they intiated their plan in when the British finally decided to leave. Palestinian historians such as Walid Khalidi and Salim Tamari have repeatedly documented the crimes Israel committed in and afterwards, using historic records as well as the testimonies of Palestinian refugees. In doing so, he manages to vindicate and corroborate the story that the Palestinians have been trying to get out to the Western world for the past sixty years.
In that book, Morris also researched declassified Israeli military archives and found that the Zionist leadership and militias committed certain crimes during the war of that led to Palestinian expulsion and flight. Morris maintained that these crimes were not the result of any advance plan of expulsion, but rather the result of the dynamics of the conflict-much the same as other bad things that happen in all wars.
He goes on to argue that the founders of Zionism-from Theodore Herzl to David Ben-Gurion-had always planned to expel the native Palestinian population as a prerequisite for creating an exclusive Jewish state in Palestine. Meanwhile, the UN allocated 56 percent of Palestine to foreign Jewish colonizers who only made up a third of the population.
Despite this injustice to the native population, the founding father of Israel actually insisted on getting more and more land. In a speech delivered to his own Mapai Party on December 3, , Ben-Gurion made his aims clear: There are 40 percent non-Jews in the areas allocated to the Jewish state.
This composition is not a solid basis for a Jewish state. Only a state with 80 percent Jews is a viable state. First, they successfully strengthened Jewish economic, social, military, and political institutions that could become the basis of the new state.
They also took advantage of British openness to Jewish immigration during the British colonial mandate period of In addition, they worked to weaken the Arab political leadership by fighting alongside British forces to crush most of the Palestinian political and military infrastructure during the Arab revolt of At the end of the Second World War, they launched a relentless campaign of terrorist attacks against British interests in Palestine to drive the British out. They drew and revised a sophisticated plan to carry out the "transfer" of the Palestinians at an opportune time in order to secure a Jewish majority in Palestine.
Within a few months, the same "founding fathers" drew up the final version of the plan, now named Plan D, or dalet in Hebrew. These leaders ordered their militias and gangs to start implementing Plan D only hours after the UN issued resolution in November The long nightmare for the Palestinians would only get worse.
Zionist militias began to attack and expel villagers with or without provocation inside lands allocated to either the Jewish or Arab state. Qisarya was the first village to be expelled in its entirety, on 15 February The expulsion took only a few hours and was carried out so systematically that the Jewish troops were able to evacuate and destroy another four villages on the same day, all under the watchful eyes of British troops stationed in police stations nearby.
On the night of February 15, , troops from Palmach which had the largest Zionist militias "took the main street of the village and systematically blew up one house after another while families were still sleeping inside. We left behind 35 demolished houses a third of the village and dead bodies quite a few of them were children.
Some of the worst massacres and rape cases took place in villages such as Deir Yassin on April 9, , where one survivor, Fahim Zaydan, described what Jewish troops did: They took us one after the other; shot an old man and when one of his daughters cried, she was shot too.
Then they called my brother Muhammad, and shot him in front of us, and when my mother yelled, bending over him-carrying my little sister Hudra in her hands, still breastfeeding her, they shot her too. And though more recent accurate accounts of the number of those killed in Deir Yassin suggest a figure of men, women, and children, Zionist propaganda broadcast over loudspeakers in the weeks that followed the massacre claimed that they actually killed over , in order to elevate the panic among Arabs.
In just a few hours, all houses were blown up and people were executed, including women and children. The remaining 6, inhabitants-who included 4, refugees expelled earlier that year from other villages-were forcibly expelled.
According to Israeli archives, "The Jewish troops who took part in the massacre also reported horrific scenes: babies whose skulls were cracked open, women raped or burned alive in houses, and men stabbed to death. It gave the Jewish troops complete understanding of the best way to attack those villages. And with the help of paid informants, it allowed them to pick out and immediately execute all potential resisters.
By the end of the war, Zionist troops had destroyed more than Palestinian villages and turned their inhabitants into refugees. The same ill fate that befell the Palestinian countryside also befell the Arab population in cities-both Arab or mixed. The campaign against the Palestinian cities was also as relentless and brutal as that against the villages.
The troops attacked by rolling barrel bombs from the hills onto Arab streets and using heavy artillery while loudspeakers threatened the Palestinians to leave or else.
Thousands of Palestinians fled to the port, attempting to get on boats to leave, but even there, Jewish troops continued to shoot, leading to more panic with parents trampling their own children. Many drowned when overloaded fishing boats capsized. On May 6, , Jewish troops laid siege with intensive bombardment. Loudspeakers shouted everywhere: "Surrender or commit suicide.
We will destroy to the last man. By the end of the war most major Palestinian cities had become totally or almost totally empty of their Arab inhabitants.
By the spring of , Israel had conquered up to 80 percent of historic Palestine. It expelled , Palestinians, or 75 percent of the native Arab population, from their homeland, turning them into refugees and preventing them from coming back at the end of the war. The founding fathers had finally succeeded in securing a Jewish state with a Jewish majority. The rest of the Palestinians were dispersed as refugees in the remaining 20 percent of their own country or in neighboring Arab states-made to live as refugees for the following sixty years.
Today, they number over six million. First, he explains that the Arab resistance to the Zionist efforts of ethnic cleansing was actually quite weak. While Ben-Gurion, in public speeches, delivered fiery public warnings against a "second Holocaust," he expressed utter confidence in private meetings that the nascent state of Israel would crush all Arab armies and resisters.
This confidence was based on his knowledge that Jewish troops outnumbered and out-gunned all the Arab armies combined. In addition, the Soviet Union allowed Czechoslovakia to supply the Jewish side with new tanks and air power while Britain formed an embargo on arms sales to the Arabs. They had no idea that the Zionist project meant not to exploit them but to expel them. Indeed, in the early months of , many were going on with their lives, even planning future harvests.
He uses the same archives that Morris looked at to show massacres and expulsions beginning and spreading as early as December He received death threats and was forced out of his job as a distinguished senior lecturer at the University of Haifa last summer. Citing an atmosphere of hate and bigotry, he decided to accept a job at Exeter University in England.
There, he continues to argue that Israel must admit its historic crime in order to begin the process of reconciliation. He also argues that the state of Israel is racist to the core and must be democratized and purged of hate. The first step towards democratization is eliminating the Jewish character of the state, allowing all Palestinian refugees to return, and establishing total equality between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. He is full of hope that this future is possible through the Palestinian struggle for national liberation.
Israelis keep trying to destroy them by planting pine trees over them, but the olive trees keep growing back. Ilan Pappe page.
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Many of these so-called New Historians and their fellow travelers may have embraced the notion of reverse victimization in order to rationalize the unexpected survival of Israel in the and wars. They present every massacre of Jews as an understandable response to a Jewish offense, for example portraying both the April 13, Mount Scopus convoy massacre and the May 15, murders of fifty Jews who had surrendered to the Arab Legion at Gush Etzion as an Arab reprisal for the April , Irgun attack on the Arab village of Deir Yassin. This plan envisioned the conquest by the Haganah—the Mandate-era precursor to the Israeli army—of areas occupied by Arabs but allotted by the United Nations to the Jewish state. He writes: On a cold Wednesday afternoon, 10 March , a group of eleven men, veteran Zionist leaders together with young military Jewish officers, put the final touches to a plan for the ethnic cleansing of Palestine. Yigal Yadin, the chief of operations of the Haganah, adopted Plan D on March 10, , as part of preparations for the onset of open warfare between Arabs and Jews in Palestine that the Arabs themselves were promising would follow a declaration of statehood.
The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine by Ilan Pappe - PDF free download eBook
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The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine by Ilan Pappe (Part II)
The conclusion of his main work on the topic The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem is that the exodus was the "result of war, not intent". Nevertheless, he stated later that "[i]n retrospect, it is clear that what occurred in in Palestine was a variety of ethnic cleansing of Arab areas by Jews. It is impossible to say how many of the , or so Palestinians who became refugees in were physically expelled, as distinct from simply fleeing a combat zone. No matter how meticulous the planning by the leaders of the Yishuv settlers was, it would have been to no avail without an unusual concatenation of international events the genocide of European Jewry, the onset of the cold war, the closing of liberal democratic gates to Jewish refugees, the emancipation of colonies in North Africa, and last but not least the hegemony of the model of the ethnic nation-state as the only available avenue for national emancipation. In truth, he probably merits a place somewhere between the two. Emphasis apart, it is hard to say what is new in his account. The scheme discussed at the Tel Aviv meeting, Plan Dalet, has been known about for years.
The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine