April in Rom stattgefunden hat, angeregt. Diese Frohbotschaft beginnt mit der Geburt des Jesus-Kindes. Johannes Paul II. Die Enzyklika versteht sich als Appell: "Achte, verteidige, liebe das Leben, jedes menschliche Leben und diene ihm! Er bekommt ein Zeichen.
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See also: Christian views on contraception There had been a long-standing general Christian prohibition on contraception and abortion, with such Church Fathers as Clement of Alexandria and Saint Augustine condemning the practices.
It was not until the Lambeth Conference that the Anglican Communion allowed for contraception in limited circumstances. Mainline Protestant denominations have since removed prohibitions against artificial contraception.
Casti connubii is against contraception and regarding natural family planning allowed married couples to use their nuptial rights "in the proper manner" when because of either time or defects, new life could not be brought forth.
The last document issued by the council Gaudium et spes contained a section titled "Fostering the Nobility of Marriage" , nos. The "duty of responsible parenthood" was affirmed, but the determination of licit and illicit forms of regulating birth was reserved to Pope Paul VI. In the spring of , following the close of the council, the commission held its fifth and final meeting, having been enlarged again to include sixteen bishops as an executive committee.
The commission was only consultative but it submitted a report approved by a majority of 64 members to Paul VI. It proposed he approve of artificial contraception without distinction of the various means.
A minority of four members opposed this report and issued a parallel report to the Pope. He explained why he did not accept the opinion of the majority report of the commission , 6.
Gilfredo Marengo, a professor of theological anthropology at the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family , launched a research project he called "a work of historical-critical investigation without any aim other than reconstructing as well as possible the whole process of composing the encyclical".
If they further reflect, they must also recognize that an act of mutual love which impairs the capacity to transmit life which God the Creator, through specific laws, has built into it, frustrates His design which constitutes the norm of marriage, and contradicts the will of the Author of life. Hence to use this divine gift while depriving it, even if only partially, of its meaning and purpose, is equally repugnant to the nature of man and of woman, and is consequently in opposition to the plan of God and His holy will.
But to experience the gift of married love while respecting the laws of conception is to acknowledge that one is not the master of the sources of life but rather the minister of the design established by the Creator. Just as man does not have unlimited dominion over his body in general, so also, and with more particular reason, he has no such dominion over his specifically sexual faculties, for these are concerned by their very nature with the generation of life, of which God is the source.
Recourse to infertile periods[ edit ] If therefore there are well-grounded reasons for spacing births, arising from the physical or psychological condition of husband or wife, or from external circumstances, the Church teaches that married people may then take advantage of the natural cycles immanent in the reproductive system and engage in marital intercourse only during those times that are infertile, thus controlling birth in a way which does not in the least offend the moral principles which We have just explained.
Concern of the Church[ edit ] It is to be anticipated that perhaps not everyone will easily accept this particular teaching. There is too much clamorous outcry against the voice of the Church, and this is intensified by modern means of communication.
But it comes as no surprise to the Church that it, no less than its divine Founder, is destined to be a "sign of contradiction. Since the Church did not make either of these laws, it cannot be their arbiter—only their guardian and interpreter. It could never be right for the Church to declare lawful what is in fact unlawful, since that, by its very nature, is always opposed to the true good of man.
In preserving intact the whole moral law of marriage, the Church is convinced that it is contributing to the creation of a truly human civilization. The Church urges man not to betray his personal responsibilities by putting all his faith in technical expedients. In this way it defends the dignity of husband and wife.
Developing countries[ edit ] We are fully aware of the difficulties confronting the public authorities in this matter, especially in the developing countries. In fact, We had in mind the justifiable anxieties which weigh upon them when We published Our encyclical letter Populorum Progressio. The only possible solution to this question is one which envisages the social and economic progress both of individuals and of the whole of human society, and which respects and promotes true human values.
I beg you my brothers let us avoid another Galileo affair. One is enough for the Church. Charles Curran , then of The Catholic University of America , issued a statement stating, "spouses may responsibly decide according to their conscience that artificial contraception in some circumstances is permissible and indeed necessary to preserve and foster the value and sacredness of marriage.
The Second Vatican Council did not speak of any of these concrete methods… This is a different standpoint than that taken under Pius XI some thirty years which was also maintained by his successor Eugene Carson Blake criticised the concepts of nature and natural law , which, in his view, still dominated Catholic theology, as outdated. This concern dominated several articles in Catholic and non-Catholic journals at the time.
As World Bank President Robert McNamara declared at the Annual Meeting of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group that countries permitting birth control practices will get preferential access to resources, doctors in La Paz, Bolivia , called it insulting that money should be exchanged for the conscience of a Catholic nation.
On the risk of faith. With the encyclical, he wanted to express consideration for human life. He explained his intention to some of his friends by using a comparison: although one must not lie, sometimes it is not possible to do otherwise; it may be necessary to conceal the truth, or it may be unavoidable to tell a lie.
It is up to the moralists to explain where sin begins, especially in the cases in which there is a higher duty than the transmission of life. Paul heard him out and said merely, "Yes, pray for me; because of my weaknesses, the Church is badly governed.
Allen, Jr. Some Catholic bishops have brought out documents of their own defending Humanae Vitae. Moreover, as Patriarch in Venice some had seen a hardening of his stance on social issues as the years went by. The book states that " John Paul II readdressed some of the same issues in his encyclical Veritatis splendor.
He reaffirmed much of Humanae vitae, and specifically described the practice of artificial contraception as an act not permitted by Catholic teaching in any circumstances. The same encyclical also clarifies the use of conscience in arriving at moral decisions, including in the use of contraception.
The authority which the magisterium enjoys by the will of Christ exists so that the moral conscience can attain the truth with security and remain in it. What was true yesterday is true also today. Benedict states, that the fullness of a person is achieved by a unity of soul and body, but neither spirit nor body alone can love, only the two together.
If this unity is broken, if only the body is satisfied, love becomes a commodity. I think of Blessed Paul VI. At a time when the problem of population growth was being raised, he had the courage to defend openness to life in families.
He knew the difficulties that are there in every family, and so in his Encyclical he was very merciful towards particular cases, and he asked confessors to be very merciful and understanding in dealing with particular cases. Paul VI was courageous; he was a good pastor and he warned his flock of the wolves who were coming.
Paul VI himself, in the end, urged confessors to be very merciful and pay attention to concrete situations. But his genius was prophetic, he had the courage to take a stand against the majority, to defend moral discipline, to exercise a cultural restraint, to oppose present and future neo-Malthusianism.
The question is not of changing doctrine, but of digging deep and making sure that pastoral care takes into account situations and what it is possible for persons to do.
Liste der päpstlichen Enzykliken
Joh 16, Der unvergleichliche Wert der menschlichen Person 2. Denn das Leben in der Zeit ist Grundvoraussetzung, Einstiegsmoment und integrierender Bestandteil des gesamten einheitlichen Lebensprozesses des menschlichen Seins. Auf der Anerkennung dieses Rechtes beruht das menschliche Zusammenleben und das politische Gemeinwesen. Der Mensch, der lebendige Mensch stellt den ersten und grundlegenden Weg der Kirche dar.
Die Weitergabe des Lebens 1. Diese Sachlage wirft neue Fragen auf. Deshalb sagen Wir allen von Herzen Dank. Die eheliche Liebe 8. Eigenart der ehelichen Liebe 9.
Papst prangert „Angriffe auf Würde und Leben“ an