ECE R28 PDF

Communication concerning the approval or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued of a type of audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system for motor vehicles, pursuant to UN Regulation No. Trade name or mark; 2. Base designation: 2. Principles of operation; 2. Audible warning devices, audible warning systems, multiple audible warning systems with electrical supply: 2.

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Communication concerning the approval or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued of a type of audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system for motor vehicles, pursuant to UN Regulation No.

Trade name or mark; 2. Base designation: 2. Principles of operation; 2. Audible warning devices, audible warning systems, multiple audible warning systems with electrical supply: 2. Type of electrical supply direct or alternating current ; 2. Shape and dimensions of diaphragm s ; 2. Rated voltage; 2. Audible warning devices, audible warning systems, multiple audible warning systems supplied directly from an external compressed air source: 2.

Rated operating pressure; 2. Outer shape of a case; 2. Shape or kind of sound outlet s ; 2. Rated sound frequency or frequencies; 2. Shape and dimensions of rigid connections for audible warning system, multiple audible warning system. The application for approval of a type of audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall be submitted by its manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

It shall be accompanied by a duly filled technical information document, either in paper format in triplicate or alternatively upon agreement with the Type Approval Authority in electronic format. A model of the technical information document is shown in Annex 1A. In addition, the application for approval shall be accompanied by two samples of the type of audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system. The Type Approval Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.

Annex 2, Section I, to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the approval mark. The Type Approval Authority or its duly accredited technical service shall verify the arrangements of the marks for ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.

The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall emit a continuous and uniform sound; its acoustic spectrum shall not vary substantially during its operation.

For audible warning devices, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system supplied with alternating current, this requirement shall apply only at constant generator speed, within the range specified in Paragraph 6.

The type approval tests shall be carried out on two samples of each type submitted by the manufacturer for approval; both the samples shall be subjected to all the tests and must conform to the technical specifications laid down. The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall have acoustic characteristics spectral distribution of the acoustic energy, sound pressure level and mechanical characteristics such that it passes, in the order indicated, the tests according to Paragraphs 6.

Measuring Instruments 6. When no general statement or conclusion can be made about conformance of the sound level meter model to the full specifications of IEC , the apparatus used for measuring the sound pressure level shall be a sound level meter or equivalent measurement system meeting the requirements of Class 1 instruments as described in IEC Measurements shall be carried out using the "fast" response of the acoustic measurement instrument and the "A" weighting curve as described in IEC When using a system that includes a periodic monitoring of the A-weighted sound pressure level, a reading should be made at a time interval not greater than 30ms.

When measurements of the sound pressures in the one-third mid-band frequencies 2,, 2, and 3,Hz are carried out for one-third octaves, the instrumentation shall meet all requirements of IEC , Class 1. The sound pressure level in the mid-band frequency 2,Hz shall be determined by adding the quadratic means of the sound pressures in the one-third mid-band frequencies 2,, 2, and 3,Hz.

When measuring the rated sound frequency or frequencies , the digital sound recording system shall have at least a 16 bit quantization. The average auto power spectrum shall be determined, using a Hanning window and at least The instruments shall be maintained and calibrated in accordance with the instructions of the instrument manufacturer.

Measurement of the Sound Characteristics 6. The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system should, preferably, be tested in an anechoic chamber. Alternatively, it may be tested in a semi-anechoic chamber or in an open space. In these cases, precautions shall be taken to avoid reflections from the ground within the measuring area for instance by erecting a set of absorbing screens. The ambient noise level shall be at least 10dB lower than the sound pressure level to be measured.

If the test facility shall be qualified as an anechoic environment it shall meet requirements of Annex 3. The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system to be tested and the microphone shall be placed at the same height. This height shall be 1. In alternative, the audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system to be tested and the microphone may be placed in another traverse line which complies with Annex 3 specification for anechoic environment.

The microphone shall be so placed that its diaphragm is at a distance of 2. The microphone must be positioned facing the front surface emitting sound of the audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system in the direction in which the maximum sound level can be measured. See Figures in Annex 4. In the case of audible warning device with several outlets, the distance shall be determined in relation to the plane of the nearest outlet to the microphone.

The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall be mounted rigidly, by means of the equipment indicated by the manufacturer, on a support whose mass is at least ten times that of the audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system under test and not less than 30kg. In addition, arrangements must be made ensuring that reflections on the sides of the support and its own vibrations have no appreciable effect on the measuring results.

The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall be supplied with current, as appropriate, at the following voltages: 6.

The specifications indicated above shall also be met by an audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system subjected to the endurance test referred to in Paragraph 6. The time lapse between the moment when the audible warning device audible warning system, multiple audible warning system is actuated and the moment when the sound reaches the minimum value prescribed in Paragraph 6. This provision is applicable, inter alia, to pneumatic or electro-pneumatic audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system.

Pneumatic or electro-pneumatic audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall, when operating under the power supply conditions established by the manufacturers, satisfy the same acoustic requirements as are prescribed for electrically operated audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system.

To confirm the rated sound frequency or frequencies of audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system the tests to measure this parameter using a spectrum analyser with a frequency resolution of at least 1Hz shall be conducted. Endurance Test 6. The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall be supplied with current at the rated voltage and with the connecting lead resistances specified in Paragraphs 6.

If the test is made in an anechoic chamber, the chamber shall be large enough to ensure normal dispersal of the heat released by the audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system during the test. The approval granted to a type of audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the conditions set forth in Paragraph 8.

Part II. Audible Warning Signals of Motor Vehicles Annex 2, Section II, to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the approval mark. The audible warning device, audible warning system, multiple audible warning system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.

The audible warning device s , audible warning system s , multiple audible warning system s and its their mounting elements to the vehicle shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to be able to reasonably resist the corrosive phenomena to which it is exposed with regards to the conditions of use of the vehicle, including regional climate differences.

Specifications Regarding Sound Levels The sound made by the audible warning device s , audible warning system s , multiple audible warning system s fitted to the vehicle type submitted for approval shall be measured by the methods described in Paragraph Measured under the conditions specified in Paragraphs The values measured in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph Methods of Measurement on Stationary Vehicle The vehicle shall comply with the following specifications: The audible warning device s , audible warning system s , multiple audible warning system s fitted on the vehicle shall be of a type approved under this Regulation Part I ; Audible warning devices of Class II approved under this Regulation in its original form, and therefore not bearing the Symbol II in their approval mark, may continue to be fitted to vehicle types submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation.

A vehicle approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraph 14 above. The Type Approval Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications shall be once every two years. The approval granted to a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the conditions set forth in Paragraph If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a vehicle type approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the approval.

Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1B to this Regulation.

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Bahn In addition, arrangements must be made ensuring that reflections on the sides of the support and its own vibrations have ecd appreciable effect on the measuring results. In this case, the provisions of paragraph 7. This department may then:. If, after the AWD has been operated for half the number of times prescribed, the sound-level characteristics are no longer the same as before the test, the AWD may be adjusted.

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