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The Embedded Runtime gives the ability to build a single. Also included, is the new Resource Handling, which now works with both. BMP and. PNG graphic types from resource. The product also introduced the updated dComplete 2. Assist Technologies. Edgar F. It used a runtime interpreter architecture, which allowed the user to execute commands by typing them in a command line "dot prompt.
Eventually, it became clear that the dBase world had expanded far beyond Ashton-Tate. Paperback Software launched the flexible and fast VP-Info with a unique built-in compiler. They said "xBase" to distinguish it from the Ashton-Tate product.
A-T saw the rise of xBase as an illegal threat to its proprietary technology. In December , U. District judge Terry Hatter, Jr. By the end of , major software companies raised the stakes by acquiring the leading xBase products. Advisor Media built on its Data Based Advisor magazine by launching FoxPro Advisor and Clipper Advisor and other developer magazines and journals, and live conferences for developers. By the year the xBase market had faded as developers shifted to new database systems and programming languages.
Computer Associates later known as CA eventually dropped Clipper. Borland restructured and sold dBase.
Of the major acquirers, Microsoft stuck with xBase the longest, evolving FoxPro into Visual FoxPro, but the product is no longer offered. The era of xBase dominance has ended, but there are still xBase products. Some open source implementations are available, such as Harbour , xHarbour and also Clip. In a new member of the xBase family was born: the XSharp X language. XSharp produces. Net assemblies and uses the familiar xBase language. The XSharp product has been created by a group four enthusiasts that have worked for the Vulcan.
NET project in the past. The compiler is created on top of the Roslyn compiler code, the code behind the C and VB compilers from Microsoft. Programming examples Edit Today, implementations of the dBase language have expanded to include many features targeted for business applications, including object-oriented programming, manipulation of remote and distributed data via SQL, Internet functionality, and interaction with modern devices.
The following example opens an employee table "empl" , gives every manager who supervises 1 or more employees a percent raise, and then prints the names and salaries. The assumed "current" table stays the same until told otherwise. Because of its origins as an interpreted interactive language, dBase used a variety of contextual techniques to reduce the amount of typing needed.
This facilitated incremental, interactive development but also made larger-scale modular programming difficult. A tenet of modular programming is that the correct execution of a program module must not be affected by external factors such as the state of memory variables or tables being manipulated in other program modules.
Because dBase was not designed with this in mind, developers had to be careful about porting borrowing programming code that assumed a certain context and it would make writing larger-scale modular code difficult.
Alternatively, the alias command could be appended to the initial opening of a table statement which made referencing a table field unambiguous and simple. For example. Another notable feature is the re-use of the same clauses for different commands.
For example, the FOR clause limits the scope of a given command. This simplifies the learning of the language. This is an example of a feature that made dBase programming flexible and dynamic, sometimes called "meta ability" in the profession. This could allow programming expressions to be placed inside tables, somewhat reminiscent of formulas in spreadsheet software.
However, it could also be problematic for pre-compiling and for making programming code secure from hacking. But, dBase tended to be used for custom internal applications for small and medium companies where the lack of protection against copying, as compared to compiled software, was often less of an issue. Niches Edit Although the language has fallen out of favor as a primary business language, some find dBase an excellent interactive ad-hoc data manipulation tool.
Its granularity of operations is generally smaller than SQL, making it easier to split querying and table processing into easy-to-understand and easy-to-test parts. For example, one could insert a BROWSE operation between the filtering and the aggregation step to study the intermediate table or view applied filter before the aggregation step is applied. Mouse-oriented commands were added to the product over time, but the command language remained a popular de facto standard while mousing commands tended to be vendor-specific.
File formats Edit A major legacy of dBase is its. Microsoft recommends saving a Microsoft Works database file in the dBase file format so that it can be read by Microsoft Excel. There are several variations on the. VP-Info is unique in that it can read all variants of the dbf file structure.
A second filetype is the. While character fields are limited to characters each, a memo field is a byte pointer into a. Some xBase languages such as VP-Info include compatibility with.
Later iterations of Clipper included drivers for. Reception Edit Jerry Pournelle in July called Vulcan "infuriatingly excellent" because the software was powerful but the documentation was poor. He praised its speed and sophisticated queries, but said that "we do a lot of pounding at the table and screaming in rage at the documentation".
dBASE Documentation Download
One effect of this action was to cause the clone vendors to avoid using the term "dBASE": a trademark term held by Ashton-Tate. Standards effort[ edit ] By there were an increasing number of "clone" software products that mimicked dBASE. Each of these products had its own unique set of supported language features and syntax. As such, it was often very difficult to move code developed with one dBASE-like product to run in another one. This was in contrast to older programming languages such as C or COBOL where due to published official standards, carefully developed code could possibly be run in a wide range of software environments. Once Borland acquired Ashton-Tate in mid and was apparently required to drop the lawsuits as an antitrust related condition of the merger , such standardization efforts were given new life. The group met on a regular basis in a variety of locations over the next few years, and representatives from most major vendors participated.
Dbase Foxbase Foxpro三者有什么区别?现在还在用么？