Aim[ edit ] The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire , ordering them geographically and systematically. The earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide range of publications. The descriptions include images of the original inscription if available, drawings showing the letters in their original size and position, and an interpretation reconstructing abbreviations and missing words, along with discussion of issues and problems. The language of the CIL is Latin. Beginnings[ edit ] In a committee was created in Berlin with the aim of publishing an organized collection of Latin inscriptions, which had previously been described piecemeal by hundreds of scholars over the preceding centuries. The leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen  who wrote several of the volumes covering Italy.
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Based in Calcutta , the society promoted the study of ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts and published an annual journal titled Asiatic Researches. Notable among its early members was Charles Wilkins who published the first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita in with the patronage of the then Governor-General of Bengal , Warren Hastings.
This successful decipherment inaugurated the study of Indian palaeography. Inspired by early amateur archaeologists like the Italian military officer, Jean-Baptiste Ventura , Cunningham excavated stupas along the width, the length and breadth of India.
While Cunningham funded many of his early excavations himself, in the long run, he realised the need for a permanent body to oversee archaeological excavations and the conservation of Indian monuments and used his stature and influence in India to lobby for an archaeological survey. While his attempt in did not meet with success, the Archaeological Survey of India was eventually formed in by a statute passed into law by Lord Canning with Cunningham as the first Archaeological Surveyor.
The survey was suspended briefly between and due to lack of funds but restored by Lord Lawrence the then Viceroy of India. In , the Survey was revived as a separate department and Cunningham was appointed as its first Director-General. Burgess launched a yearly journal The Indian Antiquary and an annual epigraphical publication Epigraphia Indica as a supplement to the Indian Antiquary.
The post of Director General was permanently suspended in due to a funds crunch and was not restored until In the interim period, conservation work in the different circles was carried out by the superintendents of the individual circles. The inscription, together with other evidence, confirmed Lumbini as the birthplace of the Buddha. Breaking with tradition, Curzon chose a year-old professor of classical studies at Cambridge named John Marshall to head the survey.
Marshall served as Director General for a quarter of a century and during his long tenure, he replenished and invigorated the survey whose activities were fast dwindling into insignificance. Marshall established the post of Government epigraphist and encouraged epigraphical studies. The most significant event of his tenure was, however, the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization at Harappa and Mohenjodaro in Marshall was succeeded by Harold Hargreaves in Hargreaves was succeeded by Daya Ram Sahni.
Sahni was succeeded by J. Blakiston and K. Dikshit both of whom had participated in the excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Chakravarti in The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act was passed in bringing the archaeological survey under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture.
Ghosh was succeeded by B. Lal who conducted archaeological excavations at Ayodhya to investigate whether a Ram Temple preceded the Babri Masjid. Lal was succeeded by M. Deshpande who served from to and B. Thapar who served from to Mitra was succeeded by M. Archaeologists J. Joshi and M. Joshi succeeded Rao. As a fallout of the demolition, Joshi was dismissed in and controversially replaced as Director General by Indian Administrative Service IAS officer Achala Moulik, a move which inaugurated a tradition of appointing bureaucrats of the IAS instead of archaeologists to head the survey.
The tradition was finally brought to an end in when Gautam Sengupta an archaeologist, replaced K. These can include everything from temples, mosques, churches, tombs, and cemeteries to palaces, forts, step-wells, and rock-cut caves. The Survey also maintains ancient mounds and other similar sites which represent the remains of ancient habitation.
Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol. 3
Corpus inscriptionum indicarum
Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum