This book is helpful for gaining information about building, construction, designs, structural design and additional subjects. The majority of the material from the initial work has been kept and developments associated with regulations and guidelines with regard to construction work as well as human rights have been comprised. With regard to a construction manual, examples play a vital role and Advanced Construction Technology 4th Edition abides by that comprehensively. The first chapter begins with site work and presents an example of how a site design appears to be. A comprehensive clarification is presented by indicators and illustrations to clarify on the subject.
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Similarly, although only one convenience is required for the office toilet unit, a two-convenience unit will be used with a plan size of 2. Materials storage compound An area to be defined by a temporary plywood hoarding 2. Plan size to be allocated Timber storage Timber is to be stored in top-covered but open-sided racks made from framed standard scaffold tubulars.
Maximum length of timber to be ordered is unlikely to exceed 6. This area has been sited to the south of the paved area, giving good access for delivery and within the reach of the crane. Reinforcement storage The bars are to be delivered cut to length, bent and labelled, and will be stored in racks as described above for timber storage.
Maximum bar length to be ordered assumed not to exceed This area has been sited to the north of the storage compound, giving reasonable delivery access and within reach of the crane. Scaffold storage Tube lengths to be stored in racks as described for timber storage, with bins provided for the various types of coupler.
Assuming a maximum tube length of 6. This storage area has been positioned alongside the west face of the proposed structure, giving reasonable delivery access and within reach of the crane if needed. Tower crane To be sited on the paved area in front of the proposed building alongside the mixer and aggregate storage position. A crane with a jib length of Car parking Assume 20 car parking spaces are required for operatives, needing a space per car of 2.
This area can be provided to the south of the mess room and drying room complex. Fencing The north and south sides of the site both face onto public footpaths and highways. Therefore a close-boarded or sheet hoarding in accordance with the licence issued by the local authority will be provided. A lockable double gate is to be included in the south-side hoarding to give access to the site. The east side of the site faces an undeveloped site, and the contract calls for a 2.
This fence will be 20 n n Advanced Construction Technology erected at an early stage in the contract to act as a security fence during the construction period as well as providing the permanent fencing. The west side of the site has a 2. Services It has been decided that permanent connections to the foul drains will be made for convenient site use, thus necessitating early planning of the drain-laying activities.
The permanent water supply to the proposed office block is to be laid at an early stage, and this run is to be tapped to provide the supplies required to the mixer position and the office complex. A temporary connection is to be made to supply the water service to the mess room complex, because a temporary supply from the permanent service would mean running the temporary supply for an unacceptable distance.
An electrical supply is to be taken onto site, with a supply incoming unit housed in the reception office along with the main distribution unit. The subject of electrical supplies to building sites is dealt with in Chapter 1.
It has been decided that a gas supply is not required. As a further public relations exercise it might be worthwhile considering the possibility of including public viewing panels in the hoarding on the north and south sides of the site.
Some examples of the standard images that could be used are shown in Fig. Figure 1. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations. The extent to which the above exercise in planning a site layout would be carried out in practice will depend upon various factors, such as the time and money that can reasonably be expended and the benefits that could accrue in terms of maximum efficiency compared with the amount of the capital outlay.
The need for careful site layout and site organisation planning becomes more relevant as the size and complexity of the operation increase. This is particularly true for contracts where spare site space is very limited.
It may also be needed to provide the power to drive small and large items of plant. Two sources of electrical supply to the site are possible: n n portable self-powered generators; metered supply from the local section of the national grid distribution network. As a supply of electricity will be required in the final structure the second source is usually adopted, because it is generally possible to connect a permanent supply cable to the proposed development for construction operations, thus saving the cost of laying a temporary supply cable to the site.
To obtain a metered temporary supply of electricity a contract must be signed between the main contractor and a local area electricity marketing company. They will require the following information: n n n n n n Address of site. Site location plan. Maximum anticipated load demand in kW for the construction period. Final load demand of the completed building to ensure that the correct rating of cable is laid for the permanent supply.
Date on which temporary supply will be required. Name, address and telephone number of the building owner or their agent, and of the main contractor. Electricity on building sites 23 To ensure that the supply and installation are available when required by the builder it is essential that an application for a temporary supply of electricity is made at the earliest possible date. On any construction site it is possible that there may be existing electricity cables, which can be advantageous or may constitute a hazard or nuisance.
Overhead cables will be visible, whereas the routes and depths of underground cables can be ascertained only from the records and maps kept by local area supply companies.
Overhead cable voltages should be checked with the local area suppliers, because these cables are usually uninsulated and are therefore classed as a hazard due mainly to their ability to arc over a distance of several metres. High-voltage cables of over 11 kV rating will need special care, and any of the following actions could be taken to reduce or eliminate the danger: n n n Apply to the local area supplier to have the cables re-routed at a safe distance or height.
Apply to have the cable taken out of service. Erect warning barriers to keep site operatives and machines at a safe distance.
These barriers must be clearly identified as to their intention, and they may be required to indicate the safe distance in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The local area supplier will advise on suitable safe distances according to the type of cable and the load it is transmitting. The position and depth of underground cables given by electricity suppliers must be treated as being only approximate, because historical records show only the data regarding the condition as laid, and since then changes in site levels may have taken place.
When excavating in the locality of an underground cable extreme caution must be taken, which may even involve careful hand excavation to expose the cable. Exposed cables should be adequately supported, and suitable barriers with warning notices should be erected. Any damage, however minor, must be reported to the electricity supplier for the necessary remedial action.
It is worth noting that if a contractor damages an underground electric cable that was known to be present, and possibly caused a loss of supply to surrounding properties, the contractor can be liable for negligence, trespass to goods and damages. These impose duties and expectations on employers, employees and the self-employed, for health and safety responsibilities with regard to the use of electricity.
Risk assessment and suitable precautions relating to particular hazards, such as overhead lines and underground cables encountered on site, are contained by the Health and Safety at Work etc.
Section details provision for temporary installations and installations on construction sites. See also, BS 24 Advanced Construction Technology Code of practice for distribution of electricity on construction and building sites.
The supply distribution assemblies used in the installation should comply with the recommendations of BS Specification for distribution assemblies for reduced low voltage electricity supplies for construction and building sites. This covers the equipment suitable for the control and distribution of electricity from a three-phase four-wire a. BS EN -2 specifies plugs, socket outlets and cable couplers for the varying voltages recommended for use on construction sites.
The appliances and wiring used in temporary installations on construction sites may be subject to extreme abuse and adverse conditions: therefore correct circuit protection, earthing and frequent inspection are most important, and this work, including the initial installation, should be entrusted to a qualified electrician or to a specialist electrical contractor.
Electrical distribution cables contain three line wires and one neutral, which can give either a V three-phase supply or a V single-phase supply. Records of accidents involving electricity show that the highest risk is encountered when electrical power is used in wet or damp conditions, which are often present on construction sites. It is therefore generally recommended that wherever possible the distribution voltage on building sites should be V.
This is a compromise between safety and efficiency, but it cannot be overstressed that a supply of this voltage can still be dangerous and lethal. The recommended voltages for use on construction sites are given below: Mains voltage V three-phase: n n supply to transformer unit, heavy plant such as cranes and movable plant fed via a trailing cable; hoists and plant powered by electric motors in excess of a 3.
Reduced voltage V three-phase: n n portable and hand-held tools; small mobile plant up to 3. It is worth considering the use of 50 or 25 V battery-supplied hand-lamps if damp situations are present on site. All supply cables must be earthed, and in particular V supplies should be centre-point earthed so that the nominal voltage to earth is not more than 65 V on a three-phase circuit and not more than 55 V on a single-phase circuit.
Protection to a circuit can be given by using bridge fuses, cartridge fuses and circuit breakers. Adequate protection should be given to all main and sub circuits against any short-circuit current, overload current and earth faults.
Protection through earthing may be attained in two distinct ways: n n Provision of a path of low impedence to ensure over-current device will operate in a short space of time. Insertion in the supply of a circuit-breaker with an operating coil that trips the breaker when the current due to earth leakage exceeds a predetermined value. BS and BS EN recommend that plug and socket outlets are identified by a colour coding as an additional safety precaution to prevent incorrect connections being made.
Main distribution assembly MDA Control and distribution of mains supply for circuits of V three-phase and V single-phase. Socket outlet assembly SOA Connection, protection and distribution of final subcircuits at a voltage lower than the incoming supply. Extension outlet assembly EOA Similar to outlet assembly except that outlets are not protected. A very-low-voltage current passes along these conductors between the portable plant and the fixed EMU.
A failure of the earth continuity conductor will interrupt the current flow, which will be detected by the EMU, and this device will automatically isolate the main circuit. The cubicles or units must be of robust construction, strong, durable, rain resistant and rigid to resist any damage that could be caused by transportation, site handling or impact shocks likely to be encountered on a construction site.
All access doors or panels must have adequate weather seals. The routeing of the supply and distribution cables around the construction site should be carefully planned.
Cables should not be allowed to trail along the ground unless suitably encased in a tube or conduit, and even this method should be used only for short periods of time. Recommended minimum height clearances for overhead cables are: n n 5. Cables that are likely to be in position for a long time, such as the supply to a crane, should preferably be sited underground at a minimum depth of mm and protected by tiles, or alternatively housed in clayware or similar pipes.
In the interest of safety, and to enable first-aid treatment to be given in cases of accident, all contractors using a supply of electricity on a construction site for any purpose must display, in a prominent position, extracts from the Electricity at Work Regulations. Pictographic safety signs for caution of the risk of electric shock are applicable under the Health and Safety Safety Signs and Signals Regulations Inadequate lighting also increases the risks of accidents and lowers the security of the site.
The initial costs of installing a system of artificial lighting for both internal and external activities can usually be offset by higher output, better-quality work, a more secure site, and apportioning the costs over a number of contracts on a use and reuse basis. The reasons for installing a system of artificial lighting on a construction site are as follows: n n n n n n Inclement weather, particularly in winter, when a reduction of natural daylight is such that the carrying out of work becomes impracticable.
Without adequate light, all activities on construction sites carry an increased risk of accident and injury. By enabling work to proceed, losses in productivity can be reduced. Reduces the wastage of labour and materials that often results from working in poor light.
[PDF] Advanced Construction Technology By Roy Chudley, Roger Greeno Book Free Download
Since the previous edition, reprint opportunities have permitted some amendments to include new procedures resulting from legislative and practice changes. This edition develops these further, with greater attention to information and detail. It also addresses many more recent issues, especially aspects of the Building Regulations that now require housing to be designed and built to more environmentally responsible and thermally efficient standards. These include reducing fuel energy consumption of heating and hot water equipment and the establishment of continuous insulation about the building envelope. Reference is also provided for carbon emission assessment relative to the fuel efficiency construction of dwellings. Notwithstanding contemporary requirements, some well established building practices and techniques described in previous editions are purposely retained.
Construction Technology, 4th Edition
Advanced Construction Technology 4th Edition By Roy Chudley Mciob and Roger Greeno