Exploration Figure 1: Four simple Braitenberg vehicles. Figure 1 shows an example of four simple Braitenberg vehicles. These four vehicles are also preprogrammed in the script. Although these vehicles are quite similar and have the same light-sensitive sensors at the same locations, the way these sensors are attached to the motors causes strong differences in their behaviour.
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Chris Thornton Introduction When looking at mechanisms with cognitive functionality and artificial intelligence in general it is useful to begin with the simplest cases. And yet we know very well that there is nothing in these vehicles that we have not put in ourselves. The speed of the motor rectangular box at the tail end is controlled by a sensor half circle on a stalk, at the front end.
Motion is always forward, in the direction of the arrow, except for perturbations. Vehicle 2a: fear pp. If the stimulation is directly ahead, the vehicle may hit the source. Otherwise, it will tend to turn away from the stimulation. Vehicle 2b: aggression If the sensor-motor connections are crossed, the behaviour changes.
If the stimulation is directly ahead, the vehicle moves directly towards it as before. But, if the stimulation is to one side, the vehicle will tend to veer towards it with increasing speed. Fear and aggression Anthropomorphic interpretation Braitenberg illustrates the potential for over-blown interpretation. Their characters are quite opposite.
But 2a becomes restless in their vicinity and tends to avoid them, escaping until it safely reaches a place where the influence of the source is scarcely felt.
Not so Vehicle 2b. It, too, is excited by the presence of sources, but resolutely turns toward them and hits them with high velocity, as if it wanted to destroy them. What comes to mind is to introduce some inhibition in the connections between the sensors and the motors, switching the sign of the influence from positive to negative. This will make the motor slow down when the corresponding sensor is activiated.
Braitenberg Vehicles Introduction In the book Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology , Valentino Braitenberg describes a series of thought experiments in which "vehicles" with simple internal structure behave in unexpectedly complex ways. Braitenberg gives this as evidence for the "law of uphill analysis and downhill invention," meaning that it is much more difficult to try to guess internal structure just from the observation of behavior than it is to create the structure that gives the behavior. I thought that was cool, so I wrote a vehicle simulator in Lisp. You will see it here soon. Here are a couple images from the Java work-in-progress: The Simulator The simulator allows one to create a world filled with vehicles and lamps, set it in motion, and observe the resulting interactions. The input to the simulator is a world definition file that specifies the vehicles and lamps to be simulated and their characteristics. Each vehicle and lamp is specified by describing its parts e.
BRAITENBERG VEHICLES PDF
Life[ edit ] Valentino Braitenberg grew up in the province of South Tyrol. Since the age of 6, Braitenberg grew up bilingual in the two languages Italian and German. German was spoken at home and all schooling was Italian, conform to the historic context. The humanistic Lyceum-Gymnasium High school in Bolzano gave him an excellent classic education including Italian literature.