Bacillus licheniformis, also known as B. It is a facultative anaerobe, having both anaerobic respiration and fermentation capabilities. It has both probiotic and industrial applications, but is it an opportunistic pathogen? This species is similar to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilis. It is used extensively in animal products and in the manufacture of the well-known antibiotic bacitracin which is active mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. Some strains produce antimicrobials that are effective in vitro against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi found on animal feed and Candida.
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Bacillus licheniformis Description and significance Bacillus licheniformis is a bacterium that is commonly found in soil and bird feathers. Birds that tend to stay on the ground more than the air i. These bacteria are commonly known to cause food poisoning and food spoilage. Food borne outbreaks usually involve cases of cooked meats and vegetables, raw milk, and industrially produced baby food contaminated with B.
Researchers are trying to turn bird feathers into a nutritious livestock feed by fermenting non-digestable proteins on bird feathers with B.
There is also research about the possibility that B. Also, cultures of B. Bacillus licheniformis is commonly found on bird feathers. Reference: dacris. The GC content is But, although similar to B. It produces a variety of extracellular enzymes that are associated with the cycling of nutrients in nature.
This bacterium can survive harsh environments by turning into spore-form; when conditions are good, it will turn back into a vegetative state. This protease is a desired ingredient in laundry detergent due to its ability to be used in low temperatures, which prevents shrinkage and fading colors.
Ecology Bacillus licheniformis forms spores in soil. A pathway that leads to endospore formation is initiated when the bacterium is starved. Endospore formation is actually desired and serves as a great example of prokaryotic development and differentiation.
These spores are quite tolerant of heat, cold, radiation, and other environmental stresses. Under good conditions, the spores will germinate and produce vegetative cells. It is an apathogenic soil organism that is mostly associated with plant and plant materials in nature. Although it is most common to isolate this bacterium from is soil, it is believed that B.
Ecologists are studying the effects of B. It is believed that this bacterium is involved in the evolution of molting and patterns of color in birds due to its feather degrading capability. Pathology Bacillus licheniformis is commonly associated with food spoilage and poisoning. It causes bread spoilage, or more specifically, a condition called "ropy bread" 1.
Contamination with this bacterium will make the bread sticky and stringy; the ropy bread will also start to develop a strong odor after contamination. Rope spores is what causes the spoilage; unfortunately these spores do not get killed during the baking process. Septicaemia is blood poisoning, and is classified as having a large amount of bacteria in the blood.
Dairy products are at increased risk of being contaminated with toxin-producing isolates of B. Cooked meats, raw milk, vegetables, and processed baby foods are also at risk. These have an onset time of hours and last no longer than 36 hours. It can cause ophthalmitis, which is the inflammation of the eye.
It can even go as far as causing abortions in pregnancies and impair sperm motility. The toxins produced by B. As mentioned, Bacillus licheniformis is commonly found on bird feathers; by fermentation with B. This is desired because it is cheap and nutritious. Ecologists are looking for signs of association between the plumage feathers and B. Since it can grow in alkaline conditions, it produces a protease that can survive at high pH levels.
The protease has an optimum pH at around 9 and 10, which is desirable since it can remove protein-comprised dirt in clothes. Researchers culture and isolate this protease to add it into detergents. This protease prevents shrinkage and fading colors since it allows lower temperatures to be used, which in turn lowers energy use as well.
Bacitracin is composed of a mixture of the cyclic polypeptides that B. Bacitracin lyses the proplasts of B. There is current research on B. Novozymes Biofungicide Green Releaf contains B. This fungicide can be used on lawns, conifers, tree seedlings, ornamental turf and ornamental plants in outdoor, greenhouse, and nursery sites.
There are concerns regarding the safety of this fungicide. Reports about Bacillus licheniformis having detrimental effects on insect, avian, plant, and estuarine marine species are fortunately almost non-existent. There have been reports of reproductive failure and mastitis caused by this bacterium in cattle, sheep and swine.
It fortunately does not have any detrimental effects on endangered species. Since this bacterium grows in alkaline conditions, it produces a desirable protease that can survive at high pH levels. This protease is an active ingredient in laundry detergents, removing protein-comprised dirt in clothes. The desirable properties of this protease are its prevention of clothes shrinkage and fading colors due to its capability to be used at lower temperatures.
This system uses DNA-based diagnostic tool to monitor fermentation processes such as the production of enzymes for Henkel laundry detergents. Currently there are many electrical techniques for food processing, one such example is Ohmic heating. Ohmic heating has potential uses such as blanching, evaporation and pasteurization of food; it is a high temperature, short time, and a purely bulk heating method.
There are increased concerns regarding microbial contaminations, from such bacteria as E. Current research try to find the "death kinetics" 2 of these bacteria. Death kinetics, in this case, involves the intensity of heat treatments and their correlation with the rate of death of a bacterium.
The death kinetics for B. Results of studies show that the ohmic heating has a quicker death kinetic rate, meaning shorter and less aggressive treatments can be used to kill off B.
Bacillus: características, reproducción, nutrición, enfermedades
Sin embargo, Bacillus anthracis carece de flagelos. Esto es debido a que la capa de peptidoglicano puede hacerse menos gruesa y compleja a medida que envejece la bacteria, siendo incapaz de retener el cristal violeta al ser tratada con alcohol. Bacillus cereus. Otras han sido descubiertas en nichos creados por humanos, desde tumbas mexicanas y deterioradas pinturas murales romanas, hasta cuartos ultra limpios en instalaciones de ensamblaje de naves espaciales. Cultivo de Bacillus subtilis. Otras especies integran la flora bacteriana de los animales.