ASTM E1444-05 PDF

More E Maximum detectability occurs when the discontinuity is positioned on the surface and perpendicular to the magnetic flux. This practice is written so that it can be specified on the engineering drawing, specification, or contract. It is not a detailed how-to procedure to be used by the examination personnel and, therefore, must be supplemented by a detailed written procedure that conforms to the requirements of this practice. Scope 1.

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You are on page 1of 20 Search inside document Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Testing1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Personnel Quali- detect cracks, laps, seams, inclusions, and other discontinuities fication and Certification in Nondestructive Testing on or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials.

Magnetic particle examination is not applicable to ments:4,5 non-ferromagnetic metals and alloys such as austenitic stain- AMS Magnetic Particle Inspection Vehicle less steels. See Appendix X6 for additional information. Oil Vehicle, Aerosol Packaged5 2. Published June Originally Plaza, P. Box , Columbus, OH Last previous edition approved in as E - Significance and Use Particle Inspection 4.

Maximum detectability occurs 2. It is not a detailed how-to Weldments procedure to be used by the inspector and, therefore, must be MIL-STD Castings, Classification and Inspection of supplemented by a detailed written procedure that conforms to A-A Fluid, Magnetic Particle Inspection, Suspension the requirements of this practice.

General Practice 2. When parts ing Equipment9 are zoned, the acceptance criteria for each zone shall be 2. Methods for establishing acceptance requirements NAS Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive for large crankshaft forgings are covered in Specification Test Personnel10 A Methods for establishing requirements for steel forg- 2. Specifications and Standards cited in the solicitation. However, inspection of parts fabricated from this herein, the text of this practice takes precedence.

Terminology nations in accordance with this practice shall be qualified in 3. The applicable edition of E shall be component for which magnetic particle examination is re- specified in the contractual agreement. This, in addition to design personnel, may include personnel from material and process engineering, stress analy- 5.

The procedure shall be in accordance with the requirements of this Practice. The written 7 Available from U. Capitol St. All written procedures, including technique sheets Available from International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, for specific parts, shall be approved by an individual qualified Geneva, Switzerland.

A mini- 5. Black 5. The image viewed must 5. When quirements. When specified, the oil suspension vehicle shall meet 5. Such operations include, but are not limited to, forging, heat treating, electroplating, forming, welding, grind- TABLE 1 Required Verification Intervals ing, straightening, machining, and proof loading.

Item Maximum Time 5. Ambient light intensity 5. Wet particle concentration 7. Records shall provide Equipment calibration check:B for traceability to the specific part or lot examined, serial Ammeter accuracy 7.

All recorded results Black and white light meters 6 months Gaussmeter accuracy 6 months shall be identified, filed, and made available for review by the A When the inspection system is in operation. B The maximum time between verifications may be reduced or extended when 5. The agents used shall comply with AS Proper wetting shall equipment used shall fulfill the magnetizing and demagnetizing be determined by a water break test see 7.

Smoother requirements adequately, as outlined herein, without damage to surfaces generally require a greater percent of wetting agent the part under examination, and they shall include the neces- than rough surfaces.

Foaming of the bath must be minimized to sary features required for safe operation. When requirements of the particle manufacturer. Particle concentrations outside of the range of 0. Fluorescent particles and nonfluorescent rent is to be used only for the detection of defects open to the particles shall not be used together.

Full-wave rectified alternating current has the deepest possible penetration and must be used for inspection for defects 6. Specific Practice below the surface when using the wet magnetic particle 6. Half-wave rectified alternating current is advanta- 6.

To free of oil, scale, machining marks, or other contaminants or ensure the detection of discontinuities in any direction, each conditions that might interfere with the efficiency of the part must be magnetized in a minimum of two directions at examination.

Depending on part 6. The pie gage as illustrated in Fig. Exceptions necessitated by part geometry, size, or other 6. A magnetic field will be induced in the part that is more magnetization may be used to fulfill the requirement for transverse than circular. This type of magnetization shall not be magnetization in two directions if it is demonstrated that it is used for magnetic particle examination unless approved by the effective in all areas.

Test parts in accordance with 6. Balance of the field Cognizant Engineering Organization. The field intensity shall be balanced in all 6. The particle application must be timed so that the 6. Adequate magnetic field strength may be determined examination.

Electrical contact is made to the part using head by one or a combination of the following methods: and tail stock, prods, clamps, magnetic leeches, or by other 6. Caution shall be taken to ensure that the electrical continuities of the type, size, and location specified in the current is not flowing while contacts are being applied or acceptance requirements or by using the notched shims as removed and that excessive heating does not occur in the defined in Annex A1; contact area.

Unless otherwise specified by the Cognizant 6. These current levels and uses pre-formed coils, cable wraps, yokes, field flux flow formulas provide only a rough guide and shall only be used in fixtures, or a central conductor to induce a magnetic field in a conjunction with either 6. Appendix X4. Ensure that adequate field strengths are present This method is often advantageous on ring-shaped parts with a in the areas of the part to be examined. For other types When the magnetic field in the magnetizing coil suddenly collapses, an eddy current will be generated in the ring-shaped part.

The eddy current produces a resultant toroidal field that may be used to detect circumferential discontinuities in the part.

For material greater than 34 in. Prod spacing shall not be less than 2 in. The effective width of the magnetizing field when using prods is one fourth of the prod spacing on each side of a line through the prod centers. The diameter of the part shall be taken as the greatest distance between any two points on the outside circumference of the part. See Appendix X5 for formulas that can 6. In this case, 6. If only the inside of the part is to be particles to the surface under examination and terminated after examined, the diameter shall be the greatest distance between powder application has been completed and any excess blown two points, degrees apart on the inside circumference.

Precautions shall be taken to prevent any damage to the Otherwise, the diameter is determined as in 6. Specially designed powder 6. The applicators shall introduce the particles into the the part, the current levels as given in 6.

The 6. The entire but not strong enough to disturb particles held by a leakage circumference shall be examined by rotating the part on the field that is indicative of discontinuities. See Fig. The dry particle method shall current through a coil encircling the part, or section of the part, not be used to examine aerospace components flight hard- to be examined that is, by using a coil shot. This produces a ware.

The effective field 6. The actual effective a liquid vehicle at the required concentration shall be applied distance must be demonstrated based on the particular part to by gently spraying or flowing the suspension over the area to be examined. For parts longer than these effective distances, be examined or by immersion of the part in the suspension.

This requires 6. All simultaneously with, or slightly before, energizing the mag- indications will be identified as relevant or nonrelevant. Rel- netic circuit. The second shot shall follow the first procedure, the location of all rejectable indications shall be in rapid succession. It should come after the flow of suspension marked on the part, and permanent records of the location, has been interrupted and before the part is examined for direction, and frequency of indications may be made by one or indications.

Weakly held indica- with information giving its location on the part. The residual method is not as sensitive as reproduction and placing the photograph in a tabular form the continuous method. It can be useful, for example, in along with information giving its location on the part. It is also useful for the parts shall be demagnetized and cleaned after final examina- examination of parts or areas of parts, which because of tion.

Apply corrosion protection as required. The residual method shall be used only when specifi- 6. The test the same direction as, the field used during examination.


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