He, therefore, got all his education here and rose in literary renown at an early age. He especially prepared himself for the judicial profession and obtained an appointment in the State service. As a judge he served at various places and was finally posted in Baghdad. The other two books were of no importance.

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He is one of the greatest and distinguished original philosophers not only in the history of Muslim philosophy but also in the history of human thought. He was educated at Tus proper in the early years of his career and later on he shifted to Jurjan, and then finally migrated to Nishapur to imbibe wisdom and philosophy by sitting at the feet of perhaps the most versatile genius of his time, Abul-Maali Muhammad al-Juwaini Imam-ul-Haramain, who was invited back from Hijaz to preside over one of the great colleges founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi.

He was accepted first as the pupil and the assistant by the Imam. Al-Ghazali won great fame and prominence because his philosophical doctrines and consequently as a great sage of the age, he was called to the court of Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi while still in his twenties. He was the intellectual adviser and chief canonist till when he was formally appointed to the great foundation of Baghdad.

Al-Ghazali was aptly considered a mujaddid and reckoned at par with the four Imams. There have been many philosophers and scholars in Islam and other religions, but the distinct caliber of one of great philosophers ushered a unique era of knowledge of his age. He left behind indelible impressions because of his immortal works and philosophical-cum-political doctrines which have still influence upon this modern age.

In , he had discontinued his work of teaching in Baghdad. His mind continually in a state of doubt, probably found no satisfaction in dogmatic predictions. Al-Ghazali remained in fretful years because of state politics which took a serious turn. He died in Tus on 19th of December, His closing years were chiefly devoted to pious contemplation and the study of the Traditions, which as a youth he could never remember.

A beautifully complete and rounded life in which the end comes back to the beginning. Principle political works of Al-Ghazali are as follows: 1. Munqidh Min ad-Dalal Deliverance from Waywardness 2. Ihya-ul-Ulam Renaissance of Sciences 3. Tibr-ul-Masbuk Molten Gold 4. Fatihat-ul-Ulum Introduction to Sciences 6. His philosophy is an expression of his own personality.

He abandoned the attempt to understand this world. But the religious problem he comprehended much more profoundly than did the philosophers of his time. According to them Religion was either blind obedience, or a kind of knowledge which contained truth of an inferior order.

His liberalism and intellectualism completely dominated Western Philosophy and even Western thinkers preserved main elements of his great philosophy in their works. Europe, about the end of the eleventh and beginning of the twelfth century of the Christian era, was in the abyss of degradation and political degeneration.

In the contemporary age of Al-Ghazali, Europe was engulfed in perpetual controversy between Pope and the Emperor.

This controversy led to political cleavage and intransigents and wreckers mutilated all traits of progress and prosperity. There was nothing but blood, destruction and wars, which snapped all resources and economy. Poverty and wrangling had become regular features of the day. At that time, East was at the pinnacle of glory and progress. It is certainly difficult to agree with unfounded and sweeping statement of Hitti that Al-Ghazali constructed such a scholastic shell for Islam that all its future progress became arrested within it.

If the progress of the West consisted as it is said in breaking a similar shell within context of his own religion then quite a few hammer strokes therein were wrought by the hands of the Muslim thinkers of which the uppermost hand was the hand of Al-Ghazali. Al-Ghazali as a great savant was decidedly superior to some of those who had gone before him. For while he had become conversant with the working of the political system when he was attending the court of his patron, Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi, Prime Minister of Suljuqi Kings, Al-Ghazali, while living in such surroundings had made a close study of the problems of politics.

It was his efforts to leave off his luxurious life and write most of his works from a mental point of vantage in Syria or Arabia or else in the seclusion of his paternal hearth and home. Al-Ghazali is definitely superior to Al-Mawardi in being analytical as well as comparative in his arguments. Knowledge would be the richer and chains of thought more continuous if that artificial blank were to be filled by such giants of wisdom as Mawardi, Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi and Al-Ghazali.

His greatness lies partly in having successfully refilled the desired outlined by brilliant Islamic colors, although they were not destined to last very long, giving place once again, and finally to barbaric hues.


Edinburgh Research Archive

Thanked 4, Times in 1, Posts Theory of Imamate Al-Mawardi says that Almighty Allah laid down laws in order that issues might be satisfactorily settled and the principles of right, truth and goodness may be widely known. He has also entrusted the control of His creatures to various governments so that order and peace in the world may be maintained. Al-Mawardi describes that the real objective of the state is the rule of justice and truth and to bring tranquility and peace to its inhabitants. He further describes that the real motive of the Imamate is following the straight path and strengthening the political bonds. He is also of the view that Imamate is not only an institution sanctified by tradition and history but can be proved to be necessary according to pure reason; for wise men entrust their affairs to a leader able to keep them from being molested and to adjudge between them in case of mutual quarrels and squabbles. The salient features of the institutions of Imamate: 1.


A History of Muslim Philosophy Volume 1, Book 3

Except Ibn-e-Khaldoon, all the jurists, thrologists and political philosophers who have followed him, down to our own days, have hardly made any improvement upon his thoughts. He was born in AD and died in AD. Al-Mawardi was regarded as one of the versatile and most learned jurists of his age, and his opinions laid emphasis in the world of law and jurisprudence. Like other Muslims he received the traditional education, and he wrote on many topics besides law, like, a Commentary on the Quran, a treatise on prophecy and several works on Ethics. But he declined to accept this offer of appointment because he said there were far abler people who deserved the title much more than himself.



Kagarg According to Wafaa H. He is to decide within the limits of Shariah. Al-Mawardi is of the view that the nomination of a person as heir apparent becomes effective only when he declares his consent to it. The first chapter of his book, kitaab Al-Ahkam Al Sultania is to tell us about the sovereign of Imam. Al-Mawardi describes two methods. A closer examination of his work, however, discloses that he is not a mere thougjt of facts handed down to him but a shrewd statesman and diplomat.

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