Understanding Aresti figures in Aerobatic competition How do pilots know what aerobatic manoeuvres they have to fly when they compete? The answer lies in understanding what are called Aresti figures. Named after Jose Aresti , a Spanish aerobatics instructor who developed them in the s, they use a system of lines, arrows, geometric shapes and numbers to describe the precise form of a manoeuvre. The system allows pilots to understand what is expected of them in training or competition, and it also allows pilots to invent new figures. They are published in book form by the Aresti family, as the Aresti Catalogue.
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Chandelle The Chandelle is not used in aerobatic competition. On the FAA power commercial pilots test a Chandelle is defined as a maximum performance climbing turn through degrees while maintaining a constant turn rate. The idea is that this is a "plan ahead" maneuver. You first establish a medium bank depending on the performance of your aircraft. Then a smooth pull-up is started. The angle of bank stays constant during the first 90 degrees of turn, while the pitch angle increases steadily.
At the 90 degree point the plane has the maximum pitch angle which should be close to the critical angle of attack. During the second 90 degrees of turn, the pitch angle is held constant, while the bank angle is smoothly decreased to reach 0 degrees of bank at degrees of turn with the airspeed close to the stall speed. The plane should not settle during the last part of the maneuver and the recovery. The decreasing bank angle during the second half of the Chandelle will maintain a constant turn rate together with the decreasing airspeed.
The turn needs to be kept coordinated by applying the right amount of rudder. A Chandelle to the left is quite different than one to the right because of the ever increasing amount of p-factor in the second half of the maneuver. Wing Over The Wing-Over is a competition maneuver in glider aerobatics.
You pull up and at the same time bank the plane. The plane is above the original flight path. The nose then keeps dropping below the horizon and the plane keeps turning, while the bank is shallowed. At the completion of the maneuver, the plane is at the same altitude as on entry and flying in the opposite direction. The aerobatics version of the Lazy Eight is two wingovers back to back.
The FAA commercial pilot version is similar but the maximum bank is only 45 degrees instead of 90 degrees. The name Lazy Eight comes from the fact that the nose of the airplane is following a figure 8 on its side on the horizon.